Legal and Ethical Considerations

Legal and Ethical Considerations

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Research Log

Name: Jessica Van Deventer

Project: Final Major Project

Date accessed Title, Author, date Format Location Specific citations. Commentary
26/04/2016 10 issues that will shape the world in 2016, Rose Pastore, 21/12/2015 Website article http://www.fastcompany.com/3054466/10-issues-that-will-shape-the-world-in-2016

 

1.     Refugee Crisis

2.     Climate Change

3.     Data Security

1.     Possible topic for article

2.     Possible topic for article

3.     Possible topic for article

26/04/2016 What are the 10 biggest global challenges, Rosamund Hutt, 21/01/2016 Website article https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/what-are-the-10-biggest-global-challenges/

 

1. What will the world of work look like? 1. Possible topic for article
26/04/2016 15 Major Current Environmental Problems, Rinkesh,N/A, Website article http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/15-current-environmental-problems.php

 

Not relevant to article 1. More info on issues of the world.
26/04/2016 10 biggest problems in the world according to the EU Website article http://www.businessinsider.com/the-10-biggest-problems-in-the-world-according-to-the-eu-2011-10?IR=T

 

Not relevant to article 1. More info on issues of the world. I visited many sites like this to cross check that the issues I had decided on were all featured and that I was talking about four of the biggest topics.
26/04/2016 Frack Off, N/A, 2016 Website http://frack-off.org.uk/fracking-hell/

 

Not relevant to article. I was considering fracking as a topic for one of my articles but have since decided against it. I may mention it vaguely in my global warming article but otherwise it was researched as a possibility.
26/04/2016 Shale gas drilling ‘contaminates drinking water’, Mark Kinver, 09/05/2011 Website article http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13333473

 

Not relevant to article. I decided to read a few extra articles on the topic as I will be discussing it vaguely in my global warming article, and I just found it interesting information.
26/04/2016 MPs urge backing for UK shale gas, Roger Harrabin, 24 May 2011 Website article http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13507126

 

Not relevant to article. As fracking is related to global warming I wished to read about how the MP’s dealt with the fracking queries. So that I may gauge their attitude toward the environment.
26/04/2016 Inklewriter, N/A, N/A Website http://www.inklestudios.com/inklewriter/

 

N/A I was interested in creating an interactive story and this website I found creates an interactive story really easily, when I tried it out. Still have to think if I want to do it.
26/04/2016 Quest, N/A, N/A Website http://textadventures.co.uk/quest

 

N/A This is another type of interactive story where the story becomes a game that the reader can interact with to tell the story. This is just another option for my project’s presentation
03/05/2016 By the Numbers: How to write a long interactive story, Dan Fabulich, 27/07/2011 Website article https://www.choiceofgames.com/2011/07/by-the-numbers-how-to-write-a-long-interactive-novel-that-doesnt-suck/

 

1. Traditional gamebooks tend to be pretty short…so it’s critical that you choose good ones. 1. Basic tips on how to create an interactive story like that on Inklewriter.
04/05/2016 Council of councils, N/A, 2015 Website http://www.cfr.org/councilofcouncils/reportcard/#!/ranking/2015

 

1.Category 3

2.Category 5

3.Category 7-$445 B

lost annually to cybercrime

Every year, cybercrime and economic espionage cost the global economy an estimated $445 billion.

4.Category 10

1. This website is called the Council of councils it is an international initiative to connect leading foreign policy institutes from around the world in a dialogue on issues of global governance and multilateral cooperation. It is sectioned off into the top ten issues in the world today. I have chosen four topics for my articles and each topic was a category on this website, namely, categories 3,5,7 and 10. Once I opened each category it provided a short summary of each topic but it’s most useful aspect; was all the links to articles and research that has got to do with each topic. It is these links that I have used from this website and I will be recording each one in my research log from here on.

3. Statistic to use in article. Huge figure.

 

04/05/2016 UN climate talks extend Kyoto Protocol, promise compensation, Roger Harrabin,8 December 2012 Website article http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-20653018

 

1.     The summit established for the first…climate change and political attempts to tackle it.

2.     The final text…is due to kick in.

3.     The UK climate secretary…is lost underwater.

4.     Warsaw was refusing…did not expect further action.

1.     To be mentioned in article. Interesting to see that developed nations are taking part blame for the climate change, how accepting of this statement are the developed nations?

2.     The amount of money to be saved each year for 2020’s new protocol on climate change. What do they need this much capital for?

3.     They seem concerned about losing islands to climate change. Which islands are under threat?

4.     Russia and Poland have put up a fuss saying they need to keep on with their carbon emmisions and perhaps increase them. Point of discussion in article? Why are they justified in saying this?

04/05/2016 73 Countries and More Than 1,000 Companies and Investors Support a Price on Carbon,N/A,

September 22, 2014

Website article http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/09/22/73-countries-1000-companies-investors-support-price-carbon

 

1.     Seventy-three national and 11 regional governments

… LG Electronics, Lego and Shell in support of carbon pricing.

2.     By supporting a price on carbon, leaders from across…a foundation on which other climate actions can build.

1.     All the nations and organisations that have come together for climate change. Interesting, mentioin in article. What is China’s stance though? As far as I was aware they either dumped their waste in the ocean or into space. Look into this.

2.     The president of the world banks opinion on it all. Very interesting facts and statistics, cross reference and use in article.

04/05/2016 Kyoto Protocol, N/A, N/A Website http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php

 

1.     The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement…

Accords.” Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.

2.     Under the Protocol, countries’ … Conference of the Parties and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020.

1.     This describes what the Kyoto Protocol, as it is such a big part of climate change prevention I felt it’d be important to give a brief run through of the protocol in my article,

2.     And how it works. Developed nations are mentioned for being the main cause once again.

04/05/2016 Some climate change impacts unavoidable: World Bank,

Alister Doyle, Nov 23, 2014

Website article http://www.reuters.com/article/climatechange-impacts-idUSKCN0J70Z920141123

 

1.     Past and predicted emissions from power…above pre-industrial times by 2050, it said.

2.     Sea levels would keep rising for centuries…since the Industrial Revolution, it said.

3.     “Dramatic climate changes and weather…70 percent for soybean and up to 50 percent for wheat in 2050.

1.     The predicted temperature rise for 2050, what will this change cause?

2.     Some of the effects that will occur with regards to the ocean and how the temperature has already changed. To be mentioned in article.

3.     What would happen to crops in certain countries due to climate change? Use in article.

04/05/2016 NASA Study: Rising Carbon Dioxide Levels Will Help and Hurt Crops, N/A, 03/05/2016 Website article http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/nasa-study-rising-carbon-dioxide-levels-will-help-and-hurt-crops

 

   
04/05/2016 Brazil to host global internet summit in ongoing fight against NSA surveillance, N/A,10 Oct, 2013 Website article https://www.rt.com/news/brazil-internet-summit-fight-nsa-006/

 

1.     Without the right of privacy, there is no real freedom…illegal action to go on as if they were an ordinary practice 1.     This is the topic I wanted to address in my article on data security as it’s not just hackers I was trying to report on but snooping government agencies aswell.
04/05/2016 NETmundial Internet Governance Meeting Closes With Less Than “Rough Consensus”, Monika Ermert, 25/04/2014 Website article http://www.ip-watch.org/2014/04/25/netmundial-internet-governance-meeting-closes-with-less-than-rough-consensus/

 

1.     The quarrel about the roles and responsibilities of …governance solutions, in short, a special role for states. 1.China, Russia and Saudi Arabia are openly against the motion and have different laws regarding the internet, discuss these laws in article?
04/05/2016 Executive Order — Imposing Additional Sanctions with Respect to North Korea, N/A, 02/01/2015

 

Website article https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/01/02/executive-order-imposing-additional-sanctions-respect-north-korea

 

1.     I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America,…further steps with respect to this national emergency 1.     Korea is another country of interest as their policies similar to that of Russia and Chinas, research some interesting facts and policies to add into article?
04/05/2016 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 2013

[on the report of the Third Committee (A/68/456/Add.2)]

68/167. The right to privacy in the digital age, Distr.: General,21 January 2014

Website document http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/167

 

1.     The General Assembly,

Reaffirming the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations…

1.     As it is a document ideally created for bureaucrats and consists of verbose language covering many protocol’s and legislation, I had to quote the entire document as it took the entire document to make the point of what the future of data security will be. I wish to mention it in my article except a bit more reader-friendly of course. Although, it’s an Interesting proposal and I will have to read it a few more times to comprehend.
04/05/2016 CFR Backgrounders, N/A, N/A Website article http://www.cfr.org/internet-policy/internet-governance/p32843

 

1.     What is Internet governance..? (e.g., samplesite.com) and IP addresses (e.g., 7.42.21.42).

2.     Many information policy experts emphasize that “Internet governance”…in contributing to the development of technical policies.

3.     States control Internet-related policies within their own borders… says a 2012 report from the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service.

4.     What is ICANN? Established in 1998 under contract to the U.S. Department of Commerce…the network technology (ARPANET) from which the Internet evolved.

1.     Explains what internet governance is. This is useful for my article’s facts.

2.     Another fact to possibly be added to article. Will use Harvard Referencing.

3.     An interesting point, will read further into paper mentioned. Graph provided shows countries and their freedom or lack thereof. This will assist in getting my point across about certain government activities pertaining to the World Wide Web.

4.     ICANN is a massive part of the internet. To not explain what it is and does would be a sin. I will describe in not so many words what it6 is and how it works and how it appears to connections with the U.S Scandal that occurred last year.

04/05/2016 New Report: Internet Freedom Deteriorates Worldwide, but Activists Push Back, Washington, October 3, 2013 Website article https://freedomhouse.org/article/new-report-internet-freedom-deteriorates-worldwide-activists-push-back#.U08HIFca18E

 

1.     10 MOST COMMONLY USED TYPES OF INTERNET CONTROL…were temporarily suspended amid political events or social unrest. 1.     Forms of internet control used by countries such as China, Russia and North Korea. Interesting information to mention in article as a fun side blurb sort of.
04/05/2016 U.S. Influence Over Cyberspace Is Eroding, Warns Adam Segal in New CFR Book, The Hacked World Order

googleoff: snippet

February 5, 2016

Website article http://www.cfr.org/cybersecurity/us-influence-over-cyberspace-eroding-warns-adam-segal-new-cfr-book-hacked-world-order/p37518

 

1. The challenges of the hacked world order are both familiar—other states will pursue policies that limit U.S. power and influence…Build an international coalition with friendly countries that share the goal of a free and open cyberspace. 1. How the US’s actions fit in with the rest of the countries who censor their internet and monitor its users. An interesting point to make in article and links in with previous research on Brazil attempting to make cyber space more friendly and less American run.
04/05/2016 China, Internet Freedom, and U.S. Policy Thomas Lum, Coordinator

Acting Section Research Manager/Specialist in Asian Affairs

Patricia Moloney Figliola

Specialist in Internet and Telecommunications Policy

Matthew C. Weed

Analyst in Foreign Policy Legislation July 13, 2012

 

Website PDF http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42601.pdf

 

1.     The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has the world’s largest number of Internet users…Some U.S. policy makers have been especially critical of the compliance of some U.S

2.     The use of the Internet as a U.S. policy tool for promoting freedom of expression and other rights in China…The development of U.S. Internet freedom policies globally.

3.     Some experts argue that support for counter-censorship technology, which has long dominated the U.S…and spreading awareness of Internet freedom.

 

 

1.     The basic facts on China and its Internet policies and how many of them are condemned by the U.S that is no angel.

2.     Labels the U.S’s agenda in China and how China doesn’t agree.

3.     What occurs on the Internet in China, I find all of this extremely interesting and it definitely doesn’t make me want to nod off. It’s informative and a weird relationship to discuss in my article.

05/05/2016 CFR Bakgrounders, N/A, N/A Website article http://www.cfr.org/iraq/islamic-state/p14811

 

1. The self-proclaimed Islamic State is a militant movement that has conquered…recruits, a particular concern of Western intelligence.

2. Syria’s 2011 uprising gave the Islamic State new opportunities to expand. … Modicum of services and consolidate its control over the population.

3. The group became an al-Qaeda franchise by 2004… but for him, it was a goal for future generations.

4. Oil extraction constitutes the Islamic State’s largest source of income… Syrians earn in territory controlled by the Islamic State.

5. Militant groups in Egypt, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines have also taken up the Islamic State’s trappings and sworn allegiance to Baghdadi.

1. This article explains what the self-proclaimed Islamic State is and how they came to be. As they play such a big role with the refugee crisis, I felt it would be important to give the reader a brief explanation of what they are as it all ties in. Do I call them Isis or the self-proclaimed Islamic State?

2. What they have done to Syria and how they have control. Very important for my article on the refugee crisis.

3. I was wondering if the two organizations were connected in anyway, it probably won’t feature in the article but is more for my own knowledge on the topic.

4. How they’re funded. Interesting because I had heard one of the main ways they receive money is from the U.S but it could’ve been just another conspiracy. Look into it?

5. Their influence and how successful they are becoming. It seems the West has created many enemies for itself. The reaping of Capitalism?

05/05/2016 About the Counter-terrorism Committee Website http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/aboutus.html

 

1. The Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) was established by Security… Criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic law and bring violators to justice. 1. This was just out of interest and not entirely relevant to the article, as I most likely won’t mention it. This is a form of defense that the West has adopted. Is it as effective as blowing them all out the sky like the West so love to do?
05/05/2016 Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts,4 March 2016 Website article http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-34131911

 

1. More than a million migrants and refugees crossed intoreaching Europe by sea since the start of 2016, according to the UNHCR.

2. The conflict in Syria continues to be by far the biggest … also leading people to look for new live elsewhere.

3. Germany received the highest number… It had 177,130 applications by the end of December.

4. According to the IOM, more than 3,770 migrants… to have been one of the reasons for the disaster.

5. The UK has opted out of any plans for a quota system but…refugees from Syria over the next five years.

6. Although huge numbers have been applying for asylum, the number of …

Status may have applied in previous years.

1. How the migrants reached Europe and how any have entered since 2016 began. I need to research more into the tales of how they walked or got on a boat.

2. Countries like Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria rank high up in the biggest number of people applying for asylum in the EU, what part did the West play in helping the civil unrest in these countries? Surely it’s our obligation to stick it out, slum it up and let them in?

3. The number of migrants the other EU countries are taking in. Is Germany doing it because they desperately need a population increase? Or because they care? Look more into this.

4. The awful reality of this crisis. So many have died, the children and woman… Whole families with only a shirt to share between them. This is the focus of my article and I plan to make the reader extremely sad and uncomfortable with the tales of horror.

5.The UK’s disappointing efforts regarding the refugee crisis, just reading this made me furious, especially when compared to the EU countries stepping up to the plate to help the human beings standing before them. Instead of being selfish about it.

6. The number of refugees actually getting this asylum that everyone is speaking of, is so low, I am disheartened. Reading this article, whilst informative is just more of a motivation to write a story to tug at the heartstrings.

05/05/2016 The 5 Big Questions About Europe’s Migrant Crisis, Naina Baekal, 09/09/2015

 

Website http://time.com/4026380/europe-migrant-crisis-questions-refugees/

 

1. Refugees, by contrast, are guaranteed a particular… where their life or freedom would be threatened.

2. An increase in attacks by President Bashar Assad’s… refugees have been in exile for more than five years.

3. It’s due to a combination of factors. The developing countries that are currently… even more difficult and dangerous than it already is.

1. What it means to be a refugee and what countries are obliged to do with them. Mention in article.

2. The reason the refugees are heading to Europe. More basic info to add to article.

3. All the reasons as to why refugees are heading over, list of reasons to be mentioned in article. Look further into each reason.

05/05/2016   Website article https://euobserver.com/tickers/130164

 

1. The UNHCR Tuesday said 2,850 people died or … from Afghanistan and 8% Eritrea. 1. Data on how many have died and how many made it and where they went once they did make it. I saw many images of the same little boy who drowned with his mother and brother, maybe find his story to use in article?
05/05/2016   Website video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvOnXh3NN9w

 

1. 0:00-1:06

2.1:12-1:23

3. 1:40- 2:29

4. 2:31-2:55

5. 3:20-4:35

 

1.     Speaks of what occurred in Syria that created the refugee crisis. The video is a 6 minute long video explaining the refugee crisis honestly and not siding with any country. The tone and voice is exactly what I’d like to portray in my article.

2.     Shaming of the Arabian countries that have turned a blind eye to it all. I love it. This is exactly what I wanted to say myself.

3.     Where Europe went wrong in handling this crisis.

4.     The UK’s selfishness is shown here, I love it and will use it all in my essay including mentioning those hero countries. They mention the little boy I was wondering about. He is the reason that countries began to help refugees out.

5.     Why it is good to help the refugees and take them in. Valid arguments and definitely the points I want to make in article, but elaborate of course.

Research Evaluation

 

I have decided to create a magazine for my FMP; I want to write three articles on three of the biggest issues facing 2016 along with some photography (both mine and borrowed) and then I wish to add a letter from the editor and a cover for the back and the front. My inspiration for this magazine is based on National Geographic magazines and will be named Milieu, which is a French word for environment.

I have conducted three surveys for my three topics. These helped me as I was able to gauge the general publics view on the issues I will be convening which are interesting and controversial.

For my global warming survey I found that people, whilst aware of global warming, are quite ignorant of it. Some believe it is neither good nor bad. In terms of demographics, the average person that answered my survey was a white female with varied ages. Almost half appeared to not have clear knowledge on what global warming actually is and varied their answers as to whether reducing global warming is more important than improving the economy. Most of the respondents were aware of global warming and categorised it as, as important as the economy. Fortunately almost all recycle and they blame an increase in CO2 emissions for the greatest cause of global warming. In my article I will address the different countries and their responses to climate change, I wish to share some interesting information on climate change and what it will mean for the future as I have been watching the videos that NASA posts on their website about climate change. Due to a clear lack in public knowledge of this topic, I want to take these interesting videos and educate the public about what it means to save the environment and what it will mean if we carry on as is. From my survey I have seen people’s ignorance on the matter and wish to put up a fight that it is not in fact, good.

I conducted secondary research and spent four full days reading as much information as possible on Global warming. I found articles on what the government is trying to do to slow down climate change, this lead me to protocols and measures being taken by other governments. I found the wording of these extremely tedious but I sat in complete silence and reread each document so that I could understand it all a bit better. I found NASA’s website with a wealth of knowledge on global warming and its causes and effects on our environment. I found myself watching them all and deciding which facts I wished to present in my article to make it more interesting. I found the videos informative and interesting and I’m not sure how I can make my article the same as it won’t be as visual as a video obviously, I plan to plan the article out and get as many opinions as possible to try to integrate into my ideas and give it a different look through my secondary research. I discovered that the developed nations are mostly to blame for climate change, as someone from a developing nation, I am concerned that I may sound quite prejudice whilst writing the article and rude about the West which is nether fair nor just, especially for an aspiring journalist. I will keep asking my friends and family for feedback to keep me in check. I have more videos on Youtube to watch, as there are so many aspects and angles to look at it from. I need to finish and log the Netflix documentary that Brian Cox stars in and where he speaks of and explains in depth what global warming is and how it has affected the planets Venus and Mars in different ways. I may incorporate this into my article, as it is not something common you often hear about global warming in general discussions.

 

In my Syria survey I did not have as many responses as the others but the same demographic as my global warming survey. They appeared to be split in half with their opinions of the refugee crisis, favouring Greece and the UK’s methods of dealing with the crisis. Most would not take in a refugee and are for the UK not helping and being stingy with how many and which refugees they help. The dates that they became aware of the war are when the war first happened and when the refugees started landing in the EU, this tells me that the only time the Western World takes notice of what’s going on around the world when it directly affects them. The only bit of information that was inconsistent with the rest is that almost all of the respondents agreed that the UK should take in migrants and that they don’t agree with the refugee camps are run. This will help me decide what approach to take in my article as I am all for helping the refugees and letting them in and it appears most people are either on the fence about it or completely against it. In conjunction with this information, I hope to make my target audience question their views, with a passionate article about the refugees and why we should help.

This has been the hardest research to do. The images of children struggling or drowned on beaches are heartbreaking. I chose this topic because it is something my housemates and I have been arguing over for months. I read into what ISIS is all about, I watched Youtube Videos explaining Syria and the crisis, in addition I found out what steps have been put into place to stop terrorism and to help the refugees, I felt it wasn’t sufficient and that I disagree with a lot of it. If I wished to write a moving article and still make sense I had to know the ins and outs of the matter so I read further into how the migrants travelled over and how the UK handled it all. This I disagreed with as well. I found this quite upsetting and had to read through some of the happy stories of refugees that have been taken I and are happy and I will have to really concentrate on not making this piece too conversational. I want to try not to bring myself into the article even though I have a very big opinion on it all. To add to this, I wish to deliver the facts and move the reader, not make them guilty and miserable. I still have many Youtube videos to watch on this topic and old newspaper articles to read about it all. I am concerned about how much of a grey area this all is. I hope that I can do this story justice and give the Syrian, Iranian and Afghanistan people a voice.

 

I conducted a survey on data security, as I wanted to just gauge what the average person’s experience is with the Internet and how trusting they are. The largest responses for my survey were from white females between the ages of 18 and 24. I found that nearly 50% of people who responded use online banking and they vary between using the Internet at home and work. More than 70% use online shopping often and are moderately confident in the security of it. They had mostly found viruses on their computer but had never been hacked which tells me that whilst there have been stories of hackers and people being scammed, it shows that if you take the proper precautions and are responsible about your data you should be fine. I plan to use this information in my article as I wish to educate others on the best ways to keep their online presence secure. I also would like to give a quick guide on how to make a secure password and what encryption is. The secondary research I conducted provided me with ample information on both topics and I wish to share it in a user-friendly manner. I also found from my survey that the most popular Antivirus software is Norton.

This is a topic that I am quite fired up about after the reports last year of the NIA snooping on people’s phones. Data security is a major issue in 2016 and what with Russia, China and North Korea’s laws on the Internet I am really excited to have an argumentative article on the topic. I have read through the laws and proposed laws about the Internet and I found that I have so many issues to address in my article that I didn’t know where to start. I decided to find the biggest, most in your face issues and try to find linking smaller issues so that it may all be mentioned. I found out about the organisation that is in charge of domain names and so forth and how Brazil is trying to share the responsibility of the Internet instead of letting America run it all and spy on everyone. I am extremely enthusiastic about this issue and once more I will have to let others proof read and give their opinion as to whether I am being to bias and aggressive. I read through websites, old newspaper articles and watched videos on YouTube giving a six-minute breakdown of what data security is and how the USA messed up.

 

In total I have done 6 days’ worth of research and will continue to add to my research log as the project continues. I have many newspapers, video clips and documentaries to watch and to find out more information on my topics. I feel prepared and excited for this project, as these are topics that I am interested in and doing the research for them has been a pleasure.